Joe Root and James Anderson's world-record partnership earned England an unlikely slender lead and then two late Indian wickets in the evening turned day four of the first Test in England's favour, leaving the hosts as the only team with a chance to win on the final day.
Middle-order batsman Root (154*) and England No. 11 Anderson (81) kept Indian bowlers at bay until late after lunch, rewriting history books with a world record 10th-wicket partnership of 198 that took England past India's 457 to 496 - a first-innings lead of 39.
Bhuvneshwar Kumar finally struck for India as he removed Anderson, taking his tally in the innings to five wickets (5 for 82) - his maiden five-for in Test cricket. Ishant Sharma ended with figures of 3 for 150 after a hard toil on the penultimate day of the match.
India were then looking good to take the Test towards a draw, but Moeen Ali and Liam PluNkett struck off successive deliveries to remove the well-set Murali Vijay (52) and Cheteshwar Pujara (55) close to stumps.
Shikhar Dhawan failed once again in the second innings as he was caught and bowled by Ali for just 29. Left-handed Dhawan hit a full toss back to the spinner minutes before the tea break. Vijay was looking solid in the second innings also after a making a brilliant hundred in the first before he danced down the wicket and got a faint edge of his bat into the gloves of Matt Prior behind the wickets for 52.
After Moeen dismissed Vijay, Cheteshwar Pujara (55) was out next ball when he cut a Plunkett delivery straight to the point fielder Ben Stokes, who fumbled but held onto the ball on second attempt. India, who were looking solid after a crucial partnership between Vijay and Pujara, were suddenly in a spot of bother with two new batsmen at the crease.
Kohli (8) and Rahane (18) saw off the remaining overs carefully.
With one day remaining in the game, the hosts would look to wrap up the Indian innings early on Sunday to push for a 1-0 lead in five-match series while the visitors would hope that Kohli and Rahane will bat them to safe position.
Earlier, Root and Anderson put on an all-time Test record of 198 runs for the 10th wicket in the first two sessions of the day. Indian bowlers struggled to pick up the last English wicket, and duo frustrated them for a very long time. Kumar finally ended India's misery on the field by dismissing England No. 11 Anderson as the Indian collected his first five-wicket haul in Test cricket.
Root and Anderson bettered the previous world record of 163-run partnership for the 10th wicket between Australia's Phil Hughes and Ashton Agar at this very ground during the Ashes series last year.
The fourth morning began with India desperately looking for the last wicket but they allowed Anderson and Root to build a solid stand by their wayward bowling.
Root and Anderson's partnership also beat a long-standing 111-year old English record for the 10th wicket of 130 runs made by Tip Foster and Wilfred Rhodes against Australia at Sydney in 1903.
It is also first match in 137 years of Test cricket that the No. 11 batsmen of both the teams have scored fifties. For India, Mohammed Shami had scored an unbeaten 51.
Anderson's 81 is the highest Test score by an England No. 11 batsman, beating John Snow's effort of 59 not out against West Indies at The Oval in 1966.
With PTI inputs