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Andhra Pradesh split, India's 29th state Telangana is born

D P Satish | dp_satish

Updated: June 2, 2014, 8:37 AM IST
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Andhra Pradesh split, India's 29th state Telangana is born
The 63-year-old K Chandrasekar Rao, who led the movement for a separate state, has taken oath as the new Chief Minister of the state.

Hyderabad: Telangana, India's newest and the 29th state is born. The ten districts of the new state broke into celebrations at midnight. The Government of India had fixed June 2 as the appointed date for the new state, which it created by passing a Bill in Parliament in February. The 63-year-old K Chandrasekar Rao, who led the movement for a separate state of Telangana since 2001, has taken oath as the new Chief Minister of the state. His party, the TRS, won both Assembly and Lok Sabha elections held on April 30. His party won 63 Assembly seats and 11 Lok Sabha seats by decimating the Congress.

Hyderabad will serve as a joint capital for both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh for 10 years. Andhra Pradesh will have to build a separate capital within 10 years. The Governor of Telangana will administer Hyderabad till the AP government moves to a new capital.

Currently Governor of Andhra Pradesh ESL Narasimhan has been given additional charge of Telangana. A 17 member KCR Cabinet will rule the new state of Telangana from Monday.

The creation of Telangana has ended a nearly 50-year-long struggle for a separate state.

Telangana emblem

There are two inner circles, both in green colour, which stand for prosperity and abundant greenery that Telanganites wish for. In between those two inner circles is 'Government of Telangana' written in three languages - English, Telugu and Urdu. Inside the innermost circle, the 'Kakatiya Thoranam' stands imposing and at the centre of the circle stands Charminar, the majestic symbol of Hyderabad. Encircling the bottom half of the golden circleare the words 'Satyameva Jayathe' in Devanagari script. "I had adopted 'Kakatiya Thoranam' as it is a popular icon of Telangana. Moreover, in that era, the rulers and people had lived in harmony. In the centre of the emblem sits Charminar, the symbol of the 423-year-old Hyderabad, "jise hum sab, hamara shehar mante hai' (which we all consider as our city)," says Laxman Alley, artist who designed it.

The significance of placing Charminar at the centre is not lost, given that every Telanganite feels that Hyderabad is the heart of Telangana. The 49-year old artist, who is studying 'Nakashi' painting and Dalit Bahujan performative art forms for a PhD at the EFLU, was at a loss for words to describe his feeling, when his design was chosen for the emblem of Telangana. "I don't have words to describe the feeling. It is far greater than any awards and rewards," he says.

A brief history of Telangana battle

The Telangana struggle has been a long battle and it finally may come to an end soon. Here's a brief look at the Telangana story so far.

Telangana is a region comprising 10 of Andhra Pradesh's 23 districts. Originally, the region was a part of the erstwhile Nizam's princely state of Hyderabad. In 1948, India put an end to the rule of the Nizams and a Hyderabad state was formed. In 1956, the Telangana part of Hyderabad was merged with the Andhra state.

The Andhra state had been carved out of Madras Presidency in 1953 after Potti Sreeramulu's agitation for Telugu statehood. The people from Telangana were against merger with Andhra as they feared job losses. That is because education levels and development in Andhra were better than in Telangana

There were cultural differences too. Under Nizam's rule, the culture and language in Telangana bore influences of North India. In 1969, the Telangana movement intensified under the leadership of Marri Chenna Reddy and the Telangana Praja Samithi. There was widespread violence and over 350 protesters were killed in police firing and lathicharge.

However, the movement could not last long as Chenna Reddy went on to merge his party with Congress and was eventually made chief minister by Indira Gandhi. In 2001, the movement revived once again when K Chandrasekhar Rao quit the Telugu Desam and formed the Telangana Rashtra Samithi. In 2004, the Congress joined hands with Rao, promising separate Telangana but later backtracked. In 2009, Chandrashekhara Rao's fast unto death forced the then Union Home Minister P Chidambaram to announce the creation of a separate state of Telangana.

The Centre appointed a commission headed by a retired judge of the Supreme Court, BN Srikrishna, to look into the matter of bifurcation. The commission submitted its report in December 2010 and it was rejected by the TRS. Late chief minister YS Rajashekhara Reddy's son YS Jagan Mohan Reddy's decision to quit the Congress to launch his own outfit YSR Congress Party once again revived the Telangana debate.

The Recent History or Timeline

2009 - KCR goes on a fast unto death. The then Union Home Minister P Chidambaram announces creation of Telangana state.

Government of India appoints Justice BN Srikrishna Commission.

Justice BN Srikrishna Commission submits its report on December 31, 2010.

TRS rejects the report and continues its mass agitation.

2012-2013 - MPs and MLAs from Telangana mount pressure for a new state. MPs and MLAs from Seemandhra oppose. Congress Core Committee decides on Telangana. Union Cabinet clears the Bill. Sent to AP Assembly. Assembly debates the bill for over a month. Finally, rejects it on January 30.

The Lok Sabha clears Telangana Bill by a voice vote on February 18, 2014.

The Rajya Sabha clears Telangana Bill

TRS wins both Assembly and Lok Sabha Polls

June 2, 2014 - TRS Chief K Chandrashekharao becomes the first Chief Minister of Telangana State

The Telangana tangle

Andhra Pradesh - Districts 23

Telangana 10

Andhra 13

Within Andhra

Coastal Andhra Pradesh 9

Rayalaseema 4

Telangana

Hyderabad, Adilabad, Khammam, Karimnagar, Mahbubnagar, Medak, Nalgonda, Nizamabad, Rangareddy and Warangal

Seemandhra

Coastal districts - Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam, East Godavari, West Godavari, Krishna, Guntur, Prakasam and Nellore

Rayalaseema districts - Kadapa, Kurnool, Ananthapur and Chittoor

Telangana

119 Assembly seats

17 LS Seats

Rajya Sabha 7

Seemandhra

175 Assembly seats

25 LS seats

Rajya Sabha 11

Telangana

Area: 1.14 Lakh sq km

Population: 3.52 crore (2011 census); 41 pe rcent of AP state population

Naxal hotbed

Mostly barren land

Accute power shortage

Law & order could be a big problem

Hyderabad is the only major developed & industrialized district

Andhra Pradesh (Seemandhra)

Area: 1.60 Lakh Sq km

Population: 5 crore (2011 census); 60 per cent of AP state population

Well developed, better infrastructure

Has a long coast

Has many major developed and industrialised cities

Has vast natural resources

Has better road and rail transport

Naxals have a marginal presence

The bone of contention - Hyderabad

Population: 70 Lakh

Hyderabad has always been the centre of Telangana

Seemandhra did not want to give up its right over Hyderabad

Telangana people maintained that it is non-negotiable

Hyderabad remains with Telangana. Will function as joint capital for both.

Telangana was the Centre of Nizams state of Hyderabad

Power shift

What it means for Telangana

Control over Krishna and Godavari waters Catchment of 68 per cent Krishna, 69 per cent Godavari river
But so far, Telangana got only 32 per cent Krishna water. Agitators said should get 70 per cent
Prakasam Barrage, Nagarjuna Sagar, Srisailam draw away water to other AP regions
Benefits of irrigation canals, 74 per cent Coastal Andhra, 18 per cent Telangana, 8 per cent Rayalaseema, 45 per cent of AP's forest area in Telangana across five districts

Singareni collieries excavate coal for industry, power stations
Power generated supplied to entire south India
Region has limestone deposits, besides bauxite and mica

Jobs For Region's People

Only 20 per cent AP's government employees were from Telangana, Population-wise, should have been 40 per cent, more than 6 lakh. In reality, barely 3 lakh. Less than 5 per cent department heads in AP government were from Telangana.

Only 6 out of 12 AP CMs from Telangana

As A State Telangana's per capita income, 10th highest in country, notch above all-India average

In absolute GDP terms, Telangana (without Hyd) above Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, U'khand, HP, Goa. Among all states, at 15th place

What it means for Andhra

In absolute GDP size, Andhra region third among states Per capita income of Andhra 11th highest, above all-India average, Rich in agriculture, owing to Godavari and Krishna deltas. Within AP, coastal Andhra is superior economic entity, considered rice bowl. Now loses control over rivers Krishna and Godavari, loses control over mineralrich Telangana region. has to develop new capital, loses Telangana revenue that was 50 per cent of state revenues

What it means for Rayalseema

Srikrishna Panel called it AP's most deprived/ backward region. This, despite fact that five AP CMs from Rayalaseema, among them YSR, Chandrababu Naidu. Compared to Telangana and Andhra, Rayalaseema worse off in industry. Flight of capital from Rayalaseema to Karnataka with Reddy community investing in real estate and industry in Karnataka. There is a perception that Andhra region is exploitative. With Telangana carved out, there is a possibility of a demand for Greater Rayalaseema statehood.

Two states: Economic impact

Telangana state will seek its share in river waters which could affect Coastal Andhra
How will Coastal Andhra generate revenue to run since Hyderabad is a prime source of revenue
Coastal Andhra could lose an investment destination if Hyderabad becomes part of Telangana
Coastal Andhra districts like Prakasam, Krishna, Guntur and Nellore could see increase in business activity
Creation of a new state could see revival of cement industry currently running on 50% less capacity
Hyderabad as shared capital will give a sense of security to migrants from coastal Andhra

Impact on business

Hyderabad - Secundarabad twin cities have a population of over 70 lakh
Most of the industries are located in and around these two cities
Hyderabad has a world class international airport
It is also getting a Metro
After Bangalore, Hyderabad is the second largest IT city in South Asia
Hyderabad has got a very good rail and road networks

Business may move out

Once the new state is created, business may move out of Hyderabad to Seemandhra
Visakhapatnam also has some IT companies
It is a hub of Pharmaceutical industries
It has a Naval base, ship building yard and a port
Most of the industries in Hyderabad region are run by the people from Seemandhra
Eventually, they may develop their own business hub on the lines of Hyderabad
It will affect the Hyderabad economy. It may even lose the population.
The fear of Maoists taking control of parts of Telangana may push the business ventures down south to Seemandhra.
Seemandhra can develop major cities like Vishakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Rajahmundry, Tirupati, Ongole, Kurnool etc.

Andhra divided: Brand Hyderabad hit?

Hyderabad is the largest contributor to the state's gdp
Contributes 55 per cent of Rs 70,000 cr state revenue
The city is expected to be a major it hub of India
Hyderabad is home to over 1300 global it companies
The city is home to over 5 lakh jobs in the it sector
Hyderabad accounts for over 90 per cent of the state's Rs 40,000 cr it exports
Ranks 4th in terms of sofware exports from India

Polavaram project controversy

The Polavaram project will harness the waters of the river Godavari by building a 45.72- metre-high, 2.32-km-long dam.

The earth and rock-filled dam will have a storage capacity of 551 million cubic metre (mcm) and power generation capacity of 960 MW. The initial proposal was for a storage reservoir with a capacity of 424.8 mcm and full reservoir level (FRL) of 45.72 metre

The water from the dam reservoir will irrigate 291,778 hectares of agricultural land in the districts of Krishna, East and West Godavari and Visakhaptnam through two major canals.

The dam will submerge 276 villages in Andhra Pradesh's Khammam and East and West Godavari districts, Odisha's Malkangiri district, and Chattisgarh's Dantewada district, up to a distance of 150 KM.

Centre passes an ordinance by making amendments. The amendment will enable land for land in the same revenue division where people will be displaced.

Politicians from Khammam district of Telangana region were demanding that Polavaram submergence areas in Bhadrachalam revenue division should not be merged with Seemandhra region.

Telangana twister

1960s

Students of Osmania University protested discrimination against people from Telangana

1969

Telangana Praja Samithi party formed

1990s

BJP promised statehood to Telangana

2001

K Chandrashekhar Rao formed Telangana Rashtra Samithi

2006

TRS withdrew from the coalition govt in AP and UPA-1 for failing to grant statehood to Telangana

November 2009

Chandrashekhar Rao went on a fast unto death demanding introduction of Telangana Bill in Parliament

December 2009

Home Minister Chidambaram said government would start the process of forming a separate state

February 2010

Government appointed Srikrishna Committee to look into demand for a Telangana state

December 2010

Srikrishna Committee suggested six possible solutions

March 2011

'Million March to Hyderabad' called by pro-Telangana groups seeking introduction of Bill on separate state

July 2011

100 Telangana MLAs and 13 Telangana MPs resigned

September 2012

Government employees, teachers went on a mass strike

December 2012

After an all party meet Home Minister Shinde assures of a solution in a month's time

January 2013

Shinde: It may take little more time to reach a final decision

January 2013

Andhra Court: Book Chidambaram and Shinde for cheating the people of Telangana

July 2013

Congress Leader Digvijay Singh announces Congress move to form Telangana

July 2013

Congress core committee completes consultations with CM, Dy CM, PCC Chief on Telangana

July 2013

CWC announces Telangana state

February 2014 - Telangana Bill Passed by both the Houses of the Parliament.

June 2014 - India's 29th state Telangana is born. KCR takes oath as the first Chief Minister.

Telangana and Andhra Pradesh - The Facts and the Figures Infographic

First Published: June 2, 2014, 8:37 AM IST
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