Mohammed Hosni Mubarak was born on May 4, 1928, in the village of Kafr el-Moseilha in the Nile delta province of Menoufia. He belonged to a lower middle class family.
In this file photo from left to right, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin (1913 - 1992) attends talks in Cairo with Egyptian President Anwar Sadat (1918 - 1981) and Vice-President Hosni Mubarak, April 1979.
As the years went by, Mubarak also became more aloof, carefully choreographing his public appearances, and his authoritarian governing style appeared increasingly out of sync with a world focused on economic and political openness.
In this file photo , visiting Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu (L) is welcomed by his host Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak at the start of their meeting on July 18, 1996 in Cairo, Egypt. Netanyahu, who is the leader of the conservative Likud party, has a growing lead in the race to become Israel's next Prime Minister. The politician and former special forces soldier has already served as Israel's Prime Minister, from 1996 to 1999.
Mubarak, 82, announced in a televised address Tuesday that he will not seek another term, but rejected demands that he step down immediately.
In this file photo on 18th August 1982, Hosni Mubarak the Egyptian President having a meeting with President Ronald Reagan of America in Washington.
Hosni Mubarak lacked the charisma of his two legendary predecessors - the peacemaker Sadat and the great Arab nationalist, Gamal Abdel Nasser - and constantly served in their shadows.
From left, European Union Foreign and Security Policy Chief Javier Solana, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, US President Bill Clinton, Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak and King Abdullah of Jordan, stand before the final statement is delivered at the Middle East summit October 17, 2000 at the resort town of Sharm el-Sheik in Egypt. Israel's prime minister and the leader of the Palestinians agreed Tuesday to take 'immediate concrete measures' to end violence in the Middle East.
Mubarak struggled constantly with the problems that have bedeviled much of the Arab world through modern history: economic stagnation, choking corruption, the Palestinian-Israeli conflict and fighting Islamic militancy at the expense of personal freedoms.
In this file photo Juan Carlos I , The king of Spain and the President of Egypt, Mohamed Hosni Mubarak, review the troops at Barajas Airport.
In the span of his presidency, Mubarak, a former pilot and air force general with a combative, stubborn streak, took tentative steps toward democratic reform but then pulled back toward the authoritarianism.
In this September 17, 1979 file photo, Egyptian Vice President Hosni Mubarak meets with President Jimmy Carter in the Rose Garden of the White House in Washington.
The prospect that Mubarak was grooming his son, Gamal, to succeed him left many Egyptians feeling that they were trapped in the past, deprived of the opportunity for change and renewal.
In a February 14, 1984 file photo, President Ronald Reagan, center, King Hussein of Jordan, left, and President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt walk along the colonnades at the White House.
Mubarak had never appointed a vice president as the constitution required, though he did so last week in an effort to appease protesters demanding his ouster.
British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher with Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak at 10 Downing Street, London, 1985.
After joining the air force in 1950, Mubarak moved up the ranks as a bomber pilot and instructor and then in leadership positions. He earned nationwide fame as commander of the air force during the 1973 Middle East war.
In this October 6, 1981 file photo, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, right, and Vice President Hosni Mubarak are seen on the reviewing stand during a military parade just before soldiers opened fire from a truck during the parade at the reviewing stand, killing Sadat and injuring Mubarak.
Mubarak remained a strong ally of the United States, carving out a niche as a key negotiator on the Palestinian crisis, and bolstered by billions in US aid because of his country's ties to Israel.
In this September 1, 2010 file photo, President Barack Obama meets with Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, in the Oval Office of the White House in Washington.
President Hosni Mubarak came to power amid crisis three decades ago, a reassuring symbol of stability for many Egyptians as well as for Western leaders seeking a solid ally in the Middle East.
In this October 14, 1981 file photo, Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak addresses the People's Assembly in Cairo, during the swearing-in ceremony that followed the assassination of President Anwar Sadat.
Mubarak engineered Egypt's return to the Arab fold after nearly a decade out in the cold over its 1979 peace treaty with Israel, and carved himself a role as a major mediator in the Arab-Israeli peace process.
In a January 27, 1987 file photo, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, left, speaks with Palestine Liberation Organization leader Yasser Arafat in Kuwait at the sidelines of the 5th Islamic Summit.
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak's announcement that he won't seek re-election sets in motion a perilous period in Egypt and across the Arab world after decades of predictability under US -allied strongmen.
In this June 1, 1990 file photo, Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi and Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak visit a panorama and weapons exhibition of the 1973 Arab-Israeli war in Cairo, Egypt.
Rallies in support of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak sprang up around Cairo on Wednesday but were dwarfed by the mass protest against his regime the day after he pledged to stand down in September.
Jordan's King Abdullah II (R) receives Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak February 8, 2003 at the Red Sea resort of Aqaba, Jordan. The leaders are expected to talk about ways of reaching a peaceful solution that could avert a US -led war ahead of an emergency Arab foreign minister's meeting.
Mubarak's departure would reconfigure the politics of the Middle East, with implications from Israel to oil giant Saudi Arabia.King Abdullah of Jordan replaced his Prime Minister on Tuesday after protests. Yemen and Sudan have also seen unrest.
In this File photo President of Egypt, Mohamed Hosni Moubarak, arrives with his wife to attend a dinner at Elysee Palace February 20, 2003 in Paris, France. A Franco-African summit is scheduled to take place in Paris with heads of state and government of African countries. The Summit will focus on development and investment, Aids/HIV, trade and conflict resolution, with particular reference to Cote d'Ivoire, a tropical African state.
World leaders urged Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak on Wednesday to take immediate steps for democracy, after he announced that he would not seek re-election once his term ends.
British Prime Minister Tony Blair (L) and Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak speak during a press conference October 11, 2001 in Cairo, Egypt. Blair has been visiting with Arab leaders to maintain support for the US and British strikes on Afghanistan.
More than a quarter-million people flooded Cairo's main square on Tuesday, February 1, 2011 in a stunning and jubilant array of young and old, urban poor and middle class professionals, mounting by far the largest protest yet in a week of unrelenting demands for Mubarak to leave after nearly 30 years in power.
Hitler Hosni Mubarak - and the rest of Egypt await their fate. A man carries a picture of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak as Hitler during a protest in Cairo, January 31, 2011
France, which was criticized for supporting Tunisia's authoritarian leader Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali until his ouster, has been more vocal in its criticism of Mubarak's handling of anti-government protests in Egypt.
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (R) and visiting French President Jacques Chirac point to each other regarding who should answer a question at a press conference November 12, 2001 in Cairo. Chirac is on the first leg of a Middle East tour which will also include the United Aran Emirates and Saudi Arabia.
The unrest has sent oil prices higher on fears of trouble in Saudi Arabia and on Egypt's Suez Canal. That in turn has raised worries about a further rise in inflation, increasing the potential for social unrest far beyond the Middle East.
Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah (L) speaks with Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak at Sharm El Sheikh airport February 28, 2003 in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt. Arab leaders are holding a summit in the Egyptian resort in order to address the crises between Iraq and a possible US-led coalition.
Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak has stepped down and the vice president has named a military council to run the country's affairs, state television said on Friday after 18 days of mass protests against his rule.
In this file photo the Egyptian military leader and president of Egypt Hosni Muhammad Mubarak, since the assassination of Muhammad Anwar al Sadat in 1981. Photo: Getty Images Text: AP