Rudolph achieved the feat during the first Test against Bangladesh at MA Aziz Stadium in Chittagong.
Rudolph, who batted more than eight and a half hours in steamy Chittagong, played 383 balls and scored 222 runs.
He stitched 429 runs with Boeta Dippenaar (177 not out) for the third wicket.
The partnership is also the highest by a South African pair for any wicket.
Rudolph smashed 2 sixes and 29 boundaries in his marathon innings.
South Africa crushed Bangladesh by an innings and 60 runs.
First Published: April 26, 2018, 12:06 PM IST