Nathan Lyon continued his incredible year as he registered figures of 4/60 in the first innings to help Australia dismiss England for 227.
With these figures, Lyon also overtook South Africa's Kagiso Rabada to become the highest wicket-taker in Test matches in 2017.
1.55* - Nathan Lyon
2. 54 – Kagiso Rabada
3.52* - R. Ashwin
52 R. Herath
4.50* - R Jadeja
However, with Jadeja and Ashwin in action against Sri Lanka in Delhi, they can still overtake Lyon to become the highest wicket-takers in the year.
Lyon, though will be backing himself to finish the year on top as Australia still has two more Tests to go before the turn of the year.
Meanwhile, Australia tightened their grip on the pink ball Test and they pursue a 2-0 lead in the series after winning last week's Brisbane opener by 10 wickets.
Two freakish Australian catches rocked England's diminishing hopes of saving the second Ashes Test on a fast-moving third day at Adelaide Oval on Monday.
Nathan Lyon and Mitchell Starc pulled off stunning caught and bowled efforts to leave the tourists reeling and facing a massive deficit in the first-ever day-night Ashes Test.
Everything that could go wrong for Ashes holders England did on a demoralising day in the context of the five-Test series.
At the dinner break, England were 219 for eight in reply to Australia's imposing first innings declaration of 442 for eight with Craig Overton not out 36 and Stuart Broad yet to score. They trail by 223 runs.
Lyon pulled off an athletic one-handed catch to dismiss Moeen Ali off his own bowling in the second over after the first break.
Moeen chipped to the left of Lyon, who flung himself across the pitch in a split second reaction to take the catch.
Lyon, nicknamed GOAT (Greatest Of All Time), again produced a sublime piece of cricketing skill following his laser throw to run out James Vince in the first Brisbane Test. Moeen had scored 25 off 57 balls in a 30-run stand with Bairstow.