The suspension means Azhar will miss Pakistan's next ODI against the West Indies in April.
Ali was also fined 40 percent of his match fee, with the other players fined 20 percent of their fees.
The punishment was imposed by match referee Jeff Crowe after Pakistan was ruled to be two overs short of its target after time allowances were taken into consideration.
According to the ICC Code of Conduct, players are fined 10 percent of their match fees for every over their side fails to bowl in the allotted time.
Their captain is fined double that amount.
Azhar had previously been found guilty of a minor over-rate offence in an ODI against New Zealand in Auckland in late January.
The Adelaide offence was the second within a year, triggering the suspension.
Australia won the ODI series 4-1 against Pakistan.
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First Published: January 27, 2017, 12:29 PM IST