The 29-year-old, playing only the second game of his brief county stint, reached the three figures in 174 balls with 13 fours on day one of the match against Gloucestershire.
The Indian batsman, however, will have to wait longer to complete 12000 First-Class runs after being dismissed on 112 by Craig Miles in the 82nd over.
Pujara batted alongside Michael Lumb with the two sharing an 185-run stand for the fourth wicket. Nottinghamshire were 307 for four after Pujara's dismissal.
Pujara had made just two runs against Glamorgan in what was his first match of the season.
The Indian has played 48 Tests averaging 51.32 with 11 hundreds and 15 half centuries.
First Published: May 26, 2017, 9:51 PM IST