Leg-break bowler Jeffrey Vandersay has been called up to the Sri Lankan side as a cover for veteran spinner Rangana Herath for the third Test which will be held in Delhi.
The 39-year-old complained of back pain after the second Test in Nagpur.
In the first Test in Kolkata, Herath bowled a total of eight overs in seaming conditions, but in Nagpur he bowled 39 overs in the only innings that India batted in the second game.
He ended with figures of 1/81 but scored a vital 67 in the first match in Kolkata.
Sri Lankan batsmen fell like nine pins and failed to provide any challenge to India as the hosts sealed a comfortable innings and 239 runs victory - which is also equal to the team's record victory against Bangladesh in 2007 - on the fourth day of the 2nd Test at Nagpur on Monday.
Ashwin ended with figures of 4/63 as Sri Lanka fell for 166 in the second innings after Virat Kohli's mammoth double ton had led India to 610 in the first innings.
Reaching 405 was always going to be a stiff task for this Sri Lankan line-up but the way they fell will be disappointing for even the most ardent of Sri Lankan fans.
Vandersay has played 11 ODIs and seven T20Is for Sri Lanka but is yet to make his Test debut. Sri Lanka have another spin option in their initial squad - the chinaman bowler Lakshan Sandakan.
The third and last Test of the series is set to begin from December 2, at Feroz Shah Kotla in New Delhi.