Teaching is no more a female-dominated profession in India. According to the All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE) released Thursday, most of the teachers in higher education institutes are males.
The number of total teachers at the university level is around 2.14 lakh out of which 62.9 per cent are male and 37.1 per cent are female. According to the report at the college level, the number of teachers is 11.3 lakh with 56.4 per cent male teachers. The total number of teachers in stand-alone institutes is 1.57 lakh with 58 per cent male teachers.
Out of the total number of 15,03,156 teachers for 2019-20 about 57.5 per cent are male teachers and 42.5 per cent are female teachers, states the report.
The lowest gender proportion is recorded in Bihar. In this state female to male teachers’ ratio is 1:4 which in percentage terms has been recorded by AISHE as 78.4 per cent for male and only 21.6 per cent for female teachers.
Second to Bihar is Jharkhand. The state has 69.5 per cent male teachers and 30.5 per cent female teachers. Uttar Pradesh has 31.9 per cent female teachers of the total teachers in the State.
The participation of women as teachers is in complete contrast with states like Kerala, Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Delhi, and Goa. “They have more female teachers than male teachers,” according to the report.
Further, the report looks at female per 100 male teachers and finds out that there are 59, 77, and 72 female teachers per 100 male teachers at universities, colleges, and Stand-alone Institutions, respectively.
At the all-India level “there are 74 female teachers per 100 male teachers,” according to the report. In the SC category, there are 58 female teachers per 100 male teachers and in the case of ST and OBC, it is 72 and 69 female per 100 male teachers, respectively. For the Muslim minority, it is 58 female teachers per 100 male whereas, for other minority, there are 154 female per 100 male teachers.
Fewer Teachers from Minority Communities
With regards to the representation of teachers from different identities it is found that at an all-India level, teachers belonging to the general group are more than half. There is 56.5 per cent of general category teachers in India followed by teachers from OBC background - 32.1 per cent. While SC and ST teachers have 9.0 per cent and 2.4 per cent participation respectively.
From the minority communities, there are 5.6 per cent Muslim teachers, and there are 9.0% from other minority groups.
The states that lead in presentation of minorities in teaching the report said, “Out of the 10 major States, the leading 3 are Tamil Nadu with 11.1 per cent SCs and 0.3 per cent STs, Maharashtra with 11.6 per cent SCs and 1.6 per cent STs and Uttar Pradesh with 8.5% SCs and 0.2% STs, teachers.”
The female representation of teachers belonging to the Persons with Disabilities (PWD) group is low, that is 36 females per 100 male teachers.