Hyderabad: Telangana, India's newest and the 29th state is born. The Government of India had fixed June 2 as the appointed date for the new state, which it created by passing a Bill in Parliament in February. The 63-year-old K Chandrashekar Rao, who led the movement for a separate state of Telangana since 2001, will take oath as the new Chief Minister of the state. His party, the TRS, has won both Assembly and Lok Sabha elections held on April 30. His party won 63 Assembly seats and 11 Lok Sabha seats by decimating the Congress.
Hyderabad will serve as a joint capital for both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh for 10 years. Andhra Pradesh will have to build a separate capital within 10 years. The Governor of Telangana will administer Hyderabad till the AP government moves to a new capital.
Currently Governor of Andhra Pradesh ESL Narasimhan has been given additional charge of Telangana. A 17 member KCR Cabinet will rule the new state of Telangana from Monday.
The creation of Telangana has ended a nearly 50-year-long struggle for a separate state.
There are two inner circles, both in green colour, which stand for prosperity and abundant greenery that Telanganites wish for. In between those two inner circles is 'Government of Telangana' written in three languages - English, Telugu and Urdu. Inside the innermost circle, the 'Kakatiya Thoranam' stands imposing and at the centre of the circle stands Charminar, the majestic symbol of Hyderabad. Encircling the bottom half of the golden circleare the words 'Satyameva Jayathe' in Devanagari script. "I had adopted 'Kakatiya Thoranam' as it is a popular icon of Telangana. Moreover, in that era, the rulers and people had lived in harmony. In the centre of the emblem sits Charminar, the symbol of the 423-year-old Hyderabad, "jise hum sab, hamara shehar mante hai' (which we all consider as our city)," says Laxman Alley, artist who designed it.
The significance of placing Charminar at the centre is not lost, given that every Telanganite feels that Hyderabad is the heart of Telangana. The 49-year old artist, who is studying 'Nakashi' painting and Dalit Bahujan performative art forms for a PhD at the EFLU, was at a loss for words to describe his feeling, when his design was chosen for the emblem of Telangana. "I don't have words to describe the feeling. It is far greater than any awards and rewards," he says.
A brief history of Telangana battle
The Telangana struggle has been a long battle and it finally may come to an end soon. Here's a brief look at the Telangana story so far.
Telangana is a region comprising 10 of Andhra Pradesh's 23 districts. Originally, the region was a part of the erstwhile Nizam's princely state of Hyderabad. In 1948, India put an end to the rule of the Nizams and a Hyderabad state was formed. In 1956, the Telangana part of Hyderabad was merged with the Andhra state.
The Andhra state had been carved out of Madras Presidency in 1953 after Potti Sreeramulu's agitation for Telugu statehood. The people from Telangana were against merger with Andhra as they feared job losses. That is because education levels and development in Andhra were better than in Telangana
There were cultural differences too. Under Nizam's rule, the culture and language in Telangana bore influences of North India. In 1969, the Telangana movement intensified under the leadership of Marri Chenna Reddy and the Telangana Praja Samithi. There was widespread violence and over 350 protesters were killed in police firing and lathicharge.
However, the movement could not last long as Chenna Reddy went on to merge his party with Congress and was eventually made chief minister by Indira Gandhi. In 2001, the movement revived once again when K Chandrasekhar Rao quit the Telugu Desam and formed the Telangana Rashtra Samithi. In 2004, the Congress joined hands with Rao, promising separate Telangana but later backtracked. In 2009, Chandrashekhara Rao's fast unto death forced the then Union Home Minister P Chidambaram to announce the creation of a separate state of Telangana.
The Centre appointed a commission headed by a retired judge of the Supreme Court, BN Srikrishna, to look into the matter of bifurcation. The commission submitted its report in December 2010 and it was rejected by the TRS. Late chief minister YS Rajashekhara Reddy's son YS Jagan Mohan Reddy's decision to quit the Congress to launch his own outfit YSR Congress Party once again revived the Telangana debate.
The Recent History or Timeline
2009 - KCR goes on a fast unto death. The then Union Home Minister P Chidambaram announces creation of Telangana state.
Government of India appoints Justice BN Srikrishna Commission.
Justice BN Srikrishna Commission submits its report on December 31, 2010.
TRS rejects the report and continues its mass agitation.
2012-2013 - MPs and MLAs from Telangana mount pressure for a new state. MPs and MLAs from Seemandhra oppose. Congress Core Committee decides on Telangana. Union Cabinet clears the Bill. Sent to AP Assembly. Assembly debates the bill for over a month. Finally, rejects it on January 30.
The Lok Sabha clears Telangana Bill by a voice vote on February 18, 2014.
The Rajya Sabha clears Telangana Bill
TRS wins both Assembly and Lok Sabha Polls
June 2, 2014 - TRS Chief K Chandrashekharao becomes the first Chief Minister of Telangana State
The Telangana tangle
Andhra Pradesh - Districts 23
Coastal Andhra Pradesh 9
Hyderabad, Adilabad, Khammam, Karimnagar, Mahbubnagar, Medak, Nalgonda, Nizamabad, Rangareddy and Warangal
Coastal districts - Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam, East Godavari, West Godavari, Krishna, Guntur, Prakasam and Nellore
Rayalaseema districts - Kadapa, Kurnool, Ananthapur and Chittoor
119 Assembly seats
17 LS Seats
Rajya Sabha 7
175 Assembly seats
25 LS seats
Rajya Sabha 11
Area: 1.14 Lakh sq km
Population: 3.52 crore (2011 census); 41 pe rcent of AP state population
Mostly barren land
Accute power shortage
Law & order could be a big problem
Hyderabad is the only major developed & industrialized district
Andhra Pradesh (Seemandhra)
Area: 1.60 Lakh Sq km
Population: 5 crore (2011 census); 60 per cent of AP state population
Well developed, better infrastructure
Has a long coast
Has many major developed and industrialised cities
Has vast natural resources
Has better road and rail transport
Naxals have a marginal presence
The bone of contention - Hyderabad
Population: 70 Lakh
Hyderabad has always been the centre of Telangana
Seemandhra did not want to give up its right over Hyderabad
Telangana people maintained that it is non-negotiable
Hyderabad remains with Telangana. Will function as joint capital for both.
Telangana was the Centre of Nizams state of Hyderabad
What it means for Telangana
Control over Krishna and Godavari waters Catchment of 68 per cent Krishna, 69 per cent Godavari river
But so far, Telangana got only 32 per cent Krishna water. Agitators said should get 70 per cent
Prakasam Barrage, Nagarjuna Sagar, Srisailam draw away water to other AP regions
Benefits of irrigation canals, 74 per cent Coastal Andhra, 18 per cent Telangana, 8 per cent Rayalaseema, 45 per cent of AP's forest area in Telangana across five districts
Singareni collieries excavate coal for industry, power stations
Power generated supplied to entire south India
Region has limestone deposits, besides bauxite and mica
Jobs For Region's People
Only 20 per cent AP's government employees were from Telangana, Population-wise, should have been 40 per cent, more than 6 lakh. In reality, barely 3 lakh. Less than 5 per cent department heads in AP government were from Telangana.
Only 6 out of 12 AP CMs from Telangana
As A State Telangana's per capita income, 10th highest in country, notch above all-India average
In absolute GDP terms, Telangana (without Hyd) above Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, U'khand, HP, Goa. Among all states, at 15th place
What it means for Andhra
In absolute GDP size, Andhra region third among states Per capita income of Andhra 11th highest, above all-India average, Rich in agriculture, owing to Godavari and Krishna deltas. Within AP, coastal Andhra is superior economic entity, considered rice bowl. Now loses control over rivers Krishna and Godavari, loses control over mineralrich Telangana region. has to develop new capital, loses Telangana revenue that was 50 per cent of state revenues
What it means for Rayalseema
Srikrishna Panel called it AP's most deprived/ backward region. This, despite fact that five AP CMs from Rayalaseema, among them YSR, Chandrababu Naidu. Compared to Telangana and Andhra, Rayalaseema worse off in industry. Flight of capital from Rayalaseema to Karnataka with Reddy community investing in real estate and industry in Karnataka. There is a perception that Andhra region is exploitative. With Telangana carved out, there is a possibility of a demand for Greater Rayalaseema statehood.
Two states: Economic impact
Telangana state will seek its share in river waters which could affect Coastal Andhra
How will Coastal Andhra generate revenue to run since Hyderabad is a prime source of revenue
Coastal Andhra could lose an investment destination if Hyderabad becomes part of Telangana
Coastal Andhra districts like Prakasam, Krishna, Guntur and Nellore could see increase in business activity
Creation of a new state could see revival of cement industry currently running on 50% less capacity
Hyderabad as shared capital will give a sense of security to migrants from coastal Andhra
Impact on business
Hyderabad - Secundarabad twin cities have a population of over 70 lakh
Most of the industries are located in and around these two cities
Hyderabad has a world class international airport
It is also getting a Metro
After Bangalore, Hyderabad is the second largest IT city in South Asia
Hyderabad has got a very good rail and road networks
Business may move out
Once the new state is created, business may move out of Hyderabad to Seemandhra
Visakhapatnam also has some IT companies
It is a hub of Pharmaceutical industries
It has a Naval base, ship building yard and a port
Most of the industries in Hyderabad region are run by the people from Seemandhra
Eventually, they may develop their own business hub on the lines of Hyderabad
It will affect the Hyderabad economy. It may even lose the population.
The fear of Maoists taking control of parts of Telangana may push the business ventures down south to Seemandhra.
Seemandhra can develop major cities like Vishakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Rajahmundry, Tirupati, Ongole, Kurnool etc.
Andhra divided: Brand Hyderabad hit?
Hyderabad is the largest contributor to the state's gdp
Contributes 55 per cent of Rs 70,000 cr state revenue
The city is expected to be a major it hub of India
Hyderabad is home to over 1300 global it companies
The city is home to over 5 lakh jobs in the it sector
Hyderabad accounts for over 90 per cent of the state's Rs 40,000 cr it exports
Ranks 4th in terms of sofware exports from India
Polavaram project controversy
The Polavaram project will harness the waters of the river Godavari by building a 45.72- metre-high, 2.32-km-long dam.
The earth and rock-filled dam will have a storage capacity of 551 million cubic metre (mcm) and power generation capacity of 960 MW. The initial proposal was for a storage reservoir with a capacity of 424.8 mcm and full reservoir level (FRL) of 45.72 metre
The water from the dam reservoir will irrigate 291,778 hectares of agricultural land in the districts of Krishna, East and West Godavari and Visakhaptnam through two major canals.
The dam will submerge 276 villages in Andhra Pradesh's Khammam and East and West Godavari districts, Odisha's Malkangiri district, and Chattisgarh's Dantewada district, up to a distance of 150 KM.
Centre passes an ordinance by making amendments. The amendment will enable land for land in the same revenue division where people will be displaced.
Politicians from Khammam district of Telangana region were demanding that Polavaram submergence areas in Bhadrachalam revenue division should not be merged with Seemandhra region.
Students of Osmania University protested discrimination against people from Telangana
Telangana Praja Samithi party formed
BJP promised statehood to Telangana
K Chandrashekhar Rao formed Telangana Rashtra Samithi
TRS withdrew from the coalition govt in AP and UPA-1 for failing to grant statehood to Telangana
Chandrashekhar Rao went on a fast unto death demanding introduction of Telangana Bill in Parliament
Home Minister Chidambaram said government would start the process of forming a separate state
Government appointed Srikrishna Committee to look into demand for a Telangana state
Srikrishna Committee suggested six possible solutions
'Million March to Hyderabad' called by pro-Telangana groups seeking introduction of Bill on separate state
100 Telangana MLAs and 13 Telangana MPs resigned
Government employees, teachers went on a mass strike
After an all party meet Home Minister Shinde assures of a solution in a month's time
Shinde: It may take little more time to reach a final decision
Andhra Court: Book Chidambaram and Shinde for cheating the people of Telangana
Congress Leader Digvijay Singh announces Congress move to form Telangana
Congress core committee completes consultations with CM, Dy CM, PCC Chief on Telangana
CWC announces Telangana state
February 2014 - Telangana Bill Passed by both the Houses of the Parliament.
June 2014 - India's 29th state Telangana is born. KCR takes oath as the first Chief Minister.