Here’s a list of things that one should keep in mind while making a rational choice.
Smoke point: Since different oils have different smoking points, temperature becomes an important factor to consider when selecting oils. Smoking point is the temperature at which the oil starts to burn and degrade. Smoking point may vary for the same type of oil depending on how it is processed. Higher the smoking point, higher is the suitability for frying food.
Fat content: Since cooking oils are made up of saturated (SAFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acids. It is important to create a balance. Saturated fats are highly stable that resists oxidation and aids digestion. However, they are less healthy than the polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats.
Both polyunsaturated and monounsaturated helps in preventing diseases like high cholesterol and heart attack. So a balance needs to be created between these acids.
Ideal Omega ratio: Omega 6 and Omega 3 ratio is the ideal ratio for good health according to the Indian Council of Medical Research and National Institute of Nutrition. Cooking oil is a good source of Omega 3 for vegetarians.
Vitamins A, D and E: Cooking oil is enriched with vitamins which are an essential part of our diet. Vitamin A helps in dealing with stress and lifestyle changes, Vitamin D is vital for immunity and Vitamin E reduces damage to the body.
Flavour: If the flavour of the oil is not important in the dish, then oil which is light in flavour can be used such as vegetable, corn or canola oil. And if the flavour of the oil is necessary then one should opt for olive or peanut oil.