Egypt next week marks the 10th anniversary of the start of mass protests that toppled former president Hosni Mubarak after nearly three decades in power.
The protests erupted on Jan. 25, 11 days after demonstrations in Tunisia forced Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali to flee, inspiring revolts against veteran Arab leaders elsewhere.
Here is a timeline of events surrounding Egypt’s 2011 uprising and the years that have followed:
January: Protests erupt across Egypt against Mubarak, demanding accountability, freedom and democracy. Security forces kill hundreds of people in clashes that follow, and the military mobilises amid unrest.
February: Mubarak steps down after 18 days of protests and violence, and the military takes control.
November 2011 to January 2012: Islamists win parliamentary elections called by Egypt’s Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. The Muslim Brotherhood forms the largest bloc.
June: Egypt’s first free presidential election, in which 13 candidates compete, goes to a run-off between Brotherhood candidate Mohamed Mursi and former prime minister and air force commander Ahmed Shafik. Mursi wins with nearly 52% of the vote.
August: Mursi appoints General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi as minister of defence and military commander-in-chief.
December: Mursi pushes through a new constitution in a controversial referendum that leads to clashes between Islamists and their opponents.
June: Large protests begin against Mursi’s presidency, demanding his removal and complaining of poverty and instability.
July: The military, led by Sisi, overthrows Mursi, who is arrested alongside other Brotherhood leaders.
August: Hundreds of Mursi supporters are shot dead by security forces in two Cairo protest camps in what human rights groups call the worst massacre in Egypt’s modern history. A broad crackdown on liberal as well as Islamist opposition groups takes hold over the coming years.
July: Sisi is elected president with almost 97% of the vote on promises of stability and improving a struggling economy.
November: Militants in Sinai pledge loyalty to Islamic State.
March: Egypt announces the construction of a new capital to be built in the desert east of Cairo.
June: A bomb attack blamed on Islamist militants kills Egypt’s chief prosecutor in Cairo. Militant attacks over the next two years increasingly target civilians, including Christians, as well as security forces.
August: Sisi opens an $8 billion extension of the Suez Canal funded largely by public subscription.
November: Egypt secures a $12 billion loan deal with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and devalues its currency. Austerity reforms increase economic pressure on many Egyptians but help stabilise the economy.
March: Mubarak is freed after six years of detention and cleared of charges including corruption and the killing of protesters in 2011.
November: Islamist militants kill more than 300 people at a mosque in the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt’s deadliest such attack.
March: Sisi wins second term with 97% of the votes after all serious opposition challengers halt campaigns or withdraw.
April: Constitutional amendments that could allow Sisi to stay in office until 2030 are approved by referendum. The changes also bolster the role of the military and expand the president’s power over judicial appointments.
June: Mursi dies in a Cairo prison at 67 after suffering a heart attack during a court hearing.
September: Small anti-Sisi protests break out in several cities after online appeals from a former contractor and actor, Mohamed Ali.
February: Mubarak dies in hospital aged 91. Three days of public mourning are declared.
May-June: IMF agrees new loans of about $8 billion to help Egypt cope with economic fallout from the coronavirus pandemic.
(Editing by William Maclean)
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