Baby Moshe was three days short of his second birthday at the time of the 26/11 attacks. At four, Moshe's grandparents say he still remembers his parents, who were killed in the attacks, and lights up when he sees their photos.
People relax on the sea front near the Trident hotel, one of the sites of the recent militant attacks, in Mumbai December 02, 2008. Coastal security has been increased in Mumbai over the last two years after terrorists hijacked a fishing boat and crossed over into Indian waters.
Leopold cafe, the quaint and much-loved pub in Mumbai, grabbed headlines as one of the destinations under attack in 2008. Militants fired at people sitting at tables, creating mayhem. The regulars at Leopold have gone back after the attack and the name of the cafe has gone down in history.
The story of Karambir Singh Kang, the general manager of the Taj hotel, is incredible. Kang lost his wife and sons who were in the sixth floor of the Heritage wing of the Taj at the time of attack. Undeterred, Kang reported to work as usual, rescuing guests and taking charge, as he put aside his personal loss. US President Barack Obama especially mentioned Kang in his speech at the Taj hotel during his visit this month.
Sandra Samuel is the Indian nanny who saved the life of two-year-old Moshe Holtzberg during the 26/11 terrorist attacks on Nariman House. Both of Moshe's parents were killed in the attack. The 45-year-old Sandra has been taking care of Moshe, now four years old, in Afula in Israel. Moshe lives with his maternal grandparents Shimon and Yehudit Rosenberg.
The most significant name to emerge out of the 26/11 trial is that of David Coleman Headley, a Chicago-based Pakistani American, who allegedly conspired with the Lashkar-e-Taiba and Pakistani serving and ex-army officers to launch the 2008 Mumbai attacks. Headley made several trips to Pakistan for terror training between 2002 and 2005 and worked as a double agent at the same time. He made five spying missions in Mumbai scouting targets for the attacks. He was arrested in October 2009 on his way to Pakistan. Headley has pleaded guilty and has been cooperating with US and Indian authorities. Indian investigators received direct access to Headley for interrogation.
Pakistan's Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gilani (L) shakes hands with India's Prime Minister Manmohan Singh during the 15th Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) summit in the Egyptian Red Sea tourist resort of Sharm el-Sheikh July 16, 2009. The prime ministers of India and Pakistan met in Egypt for talks for the first time after the Mumbai attacks.
US President Barack Obama and first lady Michelle Obama visit the memorial for the November 26, 2008 terror attack victims at the Taj Mahal Palace and Tower Hotel in Mumbai. The number 166 has become synonymous with 26/11 as that many people were killed in the attacks. Some were guests at the heritage hotel, most of them foreigners on return visits to India, were familiar with the hotel staff. Most remain faceless victims as terrorists went from door to door, shooting at sight.
This picture of a National Security Guard (NSG) commando rappelling from a helicopter near Nariman House where suspected militants were hiding, caught a nation's fancy like no other. Mumbai watched in wonder as the fittest, highest trained and most professional of India's security personnel marched into the city with their precision weaponry, smiles and determination. Heroes were born overnight and inspired young men and women enrolled themselves for the army.
A police commando stands guard on a crowded railway platform, one of the sites of the militant attacks, in Mumbai December 26, 2008. The blood on the floor has been wiped away, the swirling masses still catch the 9 o'clock local to work, but two years on security still remains inadequate for train passengers. The government has proposed an integrated security system, with high resolution cameras, bullet-proof jackets, helmets, binoculars and emergency lights but questions on implementation remain.
A satellite dish belonging to a television news channel is silhouetted against Taj Hotel during a gun battle in Mumbai November 29, 2008. The 26/11 attacks changed perception about Indian media and the crucial role it played during a crisis. Reporters camped in front of the Taj for days as bullets fired by the terrorists whizzed past them. A section of the media were criticized for round-the-clock live updates, especially disclosing the location of the hostages, making them vulnerable targets for the militants who were camping inside the hotel. Post 26/11, many media houses formed guidelines on reporting of terror attacks without compromising national security.
An unidentified woman comforts the wife (2nd R) of Hemant Karkare, chief of the police anti-terrorist squad in Mumbai, during his funeral in Mumbai November 29, 2008. Karkare was killed despite wearing a bullet-proof jacket, during the 26/11 attacks. Two years on, the debate is still on over the poor quality of equipment provided for the police force.
Firefighters try to douse a fire at the Taj Mahal Hotel in Mumbai November 27, 2008. Firefighters were the unsung heroes of the 26/11 attacks as they reached into an roaring inferno, looking for survivors as terrorists fired volleys from their automatic weapons. Desperate hostages climbed on to the ledges of their windows while firefighters hauled them safely back to the ground. Post 26/11 the firemen of Mumbai have got latest equipment and training to deal with such a situation.
A member of the Jewish community cries during a condolence prayer meeting in a Synagogue for those killed by armed militants in Nariman House. The 26/11 attacks exposed the vulnerability of Mumbai's small Jewish community which until then lived in harmony with the Muslims in some of the key settlements the two communities shared. A shaken Jewish community continue to go about their lives in Mumbai but now synagogues in Mumbai have security personnel manning the entrances.
Abbas Kazmi, a lawyer appointed by the court to represent terrorist Mohammad Ajmal Kasab, earned brickbats for defending the lone surviving gunman in the Mumbai attacks. He became a household name after participating in the current season of reality show Bigg Boss, an Indian version of the Big Brother.
Indian commandos stand around a politician during a function by Mumbai police to display its newly acquired arms and weapons. Mumbai police has taken several measures to modernise since the attack by gunmen in the city.
A security guard stands inside the heritage wing of the Taj Palace Hotel in Mumbai August 11, 2010. Indian Hotels Co. Ltd., owner of the Taj luxury chain, has restored its property that was damaged following a militant attack in November 2008. The majestic hotel, which took the worst brunt of the terror strikes, is an amazing example of resilience. The staff went to work as soon as they were allowed inside the premises and two years later, the hotel was ready to host the US President in the grandest way imaginable.
Policemen prepare to fire their weapons to pay homage to their fallen colleagues on Police Commemoration Day in Mumbai October 21, 2009. Eight hundred and thirty three Indian policemen were killed in the line of their duty in 2009, including the policemen who died during the 2008 attack by gunmen in Mumbai.
The Indian Navy's newly commissioned stealth frigate INS Shivalik is seen after the commissioning ceremony at a naval base in Mumbai April 29, 2010. According to the Indian navy, INS Shivalik is equipped with defence against nuclear, biological and chemical attack.
Mohammed Ajmal Kasab, the lone surviving Pakistani terrorist is lodged in an Indian jail for the past two years. This year, an Indian court convicted him of murder, waging war on India, possessing explosives, and other charges. In May 2010, the same trial court sentenced him to death on four counts and to a life sentence on five other counts. Kasab has appealed against his conviction and death sentence. Kasab, who is lodged in high-security Arthur Road Jail, appeared for the trial through a video conference link. As investigation into Kasab's role goes on, reports suggest that lodging the terrorist and providing him security is costing the Indian exchequer crores of rupees annually.
A Sadhu carries a poster of Sandeep Unnikrishnan, an Indian Army soldier who died in the 2008 Mumbai terror attacks, on the banks of the River Tawi in Jammu, November 24, 2010. A 10-day long prayer ceremony will begin on the banks of River Tawi in remembrance of the martyrs and victims of the attacks. It is said when a Commando got injured during the Mumbai operation, Major Unnikrishnan pulled him to safety and started chasing the terrorists himself. He was shot at and died of injuries.
India's Prime Minister Manmohan Singh (L) shakes hands with his Pakistani counterpart Yusuf Raza Gilani before their meeting at the 16th summit of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) in Thimphu April 29, 2010. Singh and Gilani held their first meeting in nine months, aiming to end a diplomatic stalemate since the 2008 Mumbai attacks, although hopes of a breakthrough remain muted.
National Security Guard (NSG) commandos stand during the opening of their new hub in Mumbai June 30, 2009. Around two hundred NSG commandos are now based in their new hub in Mumbai.
Tukaram Omble, who was an assistant sub-inspector (ASI) and a retired army personnel at the time of the 26/11 attacks, was on duty at Mumbai's Girgaum Chowpatty when Ajmal Kasab opened fire on civilians. Omble, ill-equipped to fight Kasab, grabbed his machine gun with his bare hands and took the bullets, that gave time to his colleagues to arrest the terrorist. Omble died of his injuries. Tukaram Omble was awarded the Ashoka Chakra - the highest peacetime gallantry award.
Rabbi Nachman Holtzberg, right, and Freida Holtzberg stand beside a portrait of their son Rabbi Gabriel Holtzberg and daughter-in- law, both killed in the 2008 Mumbai terror attacks, at the Jewish center Nariman House in Mumbai. Six people were killed at Chabad House, a Jewish center run by the Orthodox Chabad-Lubavitch movement. For the families of the martyrs, it has been a long road to healing.
Labourers work on the damaged part of the Taj Mahal hotel in Mumbai December 14, 2008. The 105-year-old Taj Mahal hotel, one of two luxury hotels hit by Islamist militants in the Mumbai attacks, reopened its doors on December 21, a month after it took the worst brunt of the attacks.
Mumbai policemen, mainly the constables on duty, showed the stuff they are made of, under attack. Their malfunctioning guns and poor quality ammunition were no match for the sophisticated weaponry of the terrorists. But the constables on duty at the CST, or the bus terminus, fought back, provided comfort to the victims, picked up hurt and bewildered children and rescued civilians caught in cross-fire. Post 26/11, The Maharashtra government has launched a scheme to modernise its police force. Mumbai police now has weapons and bullet-proof vehicles and a Quick Response Team to react to emergencies.
Agonizing pictures of smoke and flame billowing from the dome of the Taj Hotel, the joy and pride of Mumbai, flashed across television screens for days. Scenes of troops taking cover before crawling towards the luxury hotel inch-by-inch as bullets whizzed past their heads, will perhaps forever remain imprinted in memories of Indians as they come to terms with the scale of the attack.